Larygoscopy and Intubation are stressful periods for any patient, especially so in cardiac patients. Haemodynamic response includes hypertension, tachycardia ( occasionally bradycardia especially in children), any type of arrhythmias, and myocardial ischaemia. These responses are in addition to the haemodynamic changes cuased by the effects of drugs used for induction of anaesthesia, the effects of hypoxia or hypercarbia that may occur during induction and the effects of intermittent positive pressure breathing.

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