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Venting of the heart is done to ensure a clear operative field, prevent cardiac rewarming and to prevent ventricular distention thus avoiding ensuing sub-endocardial Ischemia. Vents can be inserted via a special cardiotomy, via an open chamber (opened for some other procedure) or endoluminally. Problems that can occur with vents can be divided into

Problems of insertion

Problems during venting

Damage to structures during venting and their removal

Problems encountered after removal